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Zinaida RADU, dr. Responsabilitatea cu privire la corectitudinea şi obiectivitatea ştiinţifică aparţine fiecărui autor. Materialele Seminarului metodologic "Interconexiunea paradigmelor didactice şi metodologice în predarea limbilor străine", din 23 ian.
Chişinău : ULIM, p. Acta didactica, ISBN.
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Liberă Intern. Filologice şi Interculturale [et al. Texte: lb. Zusammensetzungen im Deutschunterricht. Teaching English: Methods and Approaches.
Lustration in Romania: The Story of a Failure
Peculiarities of Teaching for Exams. Methodes d enseignement du francais langue etrangere a l aide du texte ecrit: la comprehention ecrite. Challenges in Teaching Grammar: Ambiguous Connectors. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching.
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Modern Trends in Teaching English: Projects. Învăţarea unei limbi străine înseamnă pentru individ, dincolo de avantajul concret de a răspunde unor cerinţe ale pieţii muncii, facilitarea dezvoltării propriilor capacităţi de învăţare, a îmbunătăţirii competenţelor gnoseologice și praxiologice şi a abilităţilor de comu-nicare. În contextul actual al globalizării, mobilităţii şi migraţiei, cunoaşterea imbilor străine poate oferi noi soluţii pentru cetăţeni şi societate.
Într-o Europă multilingvă, predarea şi învăţarea limbilor străine re-prezintă o prioritate absolută, un factor strategic pentru dezvoltarea unei Europe bazate pe cunoaştere în secolul XXI. Însușirea limbilor străine deschide calea spre noi oportunităţi, deoarece cunoaşterea unei sau mai multor limbi contribuie la lărgirea orizontului civilizațional și societal. Limba contituie accesul privilegiat la orice cultură.
Niciodată exhaustivă sau perfectă, traducerea nu poate înlocui apelul direct la formele de expresie ale limbii sursa.
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Fiind purtatoare a unei culturi, limba oferă acces la diverse viziuni asupra lumii. Întelegerea între doi vorbitori de limbi diferite va fi întotdeauna mai bună, atât în plan informațional, cât şi în plan emo-ţional, dacă în loc să se recurgă la o a treia limbă, fiecare dintre ei va folosi limba celuilalt. Adevarata intercomprehensiune nu poate să se bazeze decât pe eco slim avis negatif în comun a limbilor cu o tradiție culturală.
The authors point out grammar-translation method, especially, teaching and learning word classes and word orders using for overcoming some problems in translation. Keywords: target language, original, mother tongue, language barrier, types of translation, language knowledge Many kinds of teaching methods are used by English teachers who teach English as a foreign language. Especially, translation method is widely used in English classrooms in Mongolian universities depending on language level of students and course features.
It is said that translation method is one of the outdated methods but it has been used still now. Through using the translation method students can obtain knowledge deeply on certain topics and learn some ways of translation from English into Mongolian mother tongue or from Mongolian into English. Results of this method, students can translate professional texts for their research work, course work or graduate work to get more information so that it is important to boost students language knowledge.
Eco slim avis eco slim avis negatif s obvious, both teachers and students face some troubles in translation. For teachers, it is impossible all students can do translations correctly. For Mongolian eco slim avis negatif, students have language barriers.
Once there are many different languages in the world so translation is needed as usual. Therefore translation method was used in the past, is being used today and will be used in the future. Translations used in English classrooms Translation is the communication of the meaning of a sourcelanguage text by means of an pierderea în greutate și hematuria target-language text.
A "backtranslation" is a translation of a translated text back into the language of the original text, made without reference to the original text [1, online]. There are eight types of translation: Word-for-word translation; 7 8 Literal translation; Faithful translation; Semantic translation; Adaptive translation; Free translation; Idiomatic translation; Communicative translation [4, online].
We would like to mention what types of translation are mostly used in our English classrooms. Word-for-word translation is commonly applied in all of our English classrooms because in this translation, word order is preserved and the words are translated by their most eco slim avis negatif meanings.
Cultural words are translated literally. The main use if this method is to construe a difficult text as pre-translation process. Teachers can check their students understandings the word meanings. For literal translation, grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest target language equivalents but lexical items are translated out of context.
As pre-translation process, it indicates problems to be solved. We mainly use this translation method in English for Science and Technology and English for Special Purposes classrooms because students read simplified scientific texts including some special terms. Faithful translation attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the target language grammatical structures.
It is dogmatic. When students translate some texts relating to their professions, they use the faithful eco slim avis negatif. We usually give this kind of tasks as homework and assignment work because it requires much time for completing the task. Students can do the adaptive translation in groups because it is the most flexible in other translations so students can expand ideas of the sentences. Reasons for using Translations in the English classrooms. Without translation, English cannot be taught for students who learn English as a foreign language because of their language barriers.
Our university students English language levels are very low that is the reason why translation has been used in the English classrooms. The following table shows the students English language levels See table 1. English is not required to take as an entrance exam for engineering students. They 8 9 must take Mathematics. This is one of the reasons why most students have poor English knowledge. According to the university policy, freshmen, who cannot get more scores from English of the Entrance Exams or If students don t pass English when entering university.
Table1 General English Test GET Results Academic year A number of students who took the test 9 A number of students who passed the exam successfully A number of students who could not pass the exam fall term Total From this data, you can see how low our students English language knowledge is only Other students involved Prerequisite English Course to learn English continuously. Poor students are caused to employ translation method in the English classes.
They don t have enough vocabularies and they cannot identify word classes, as well. Moreover, they cannot make correct sentences. Methods employed in translations. Resulting from the above mentioned reasons, a grammar eco slim avis negatif method is required to be used in our English classrooms. The grammar translation method is a method of teaching foreign languages derived from the classical sometimes called traditional method of teaching Greek and Latin.
In grammar-translation classes, students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules by translating sentences between the target language and the native language. Advanced students may be required to translate whole texts word-for-word. The method has two main goals: to enable students to read and translate literature written in the target language, and to further eco slim avis negatif general intellectual development [2, online]. In addition to this, it s very important to know word classes for students while translating so teachers always point out them.
If students identify words classes, they can translate given sentences correctly and keep original ideas of the sentences. Word classes are categories of word. The categories are defined by what the word does. Some word classes are open, which means that new words can be eco slim avis negatif to them, and others are closed, which means no new words can be added. Nouns and verbs are open word classes and prepositions and determiners are closed.
Example: Nouns, verbs and prepositions are word classes. In the classroom Adding new words to open word classes is enjoyable and motivating for learners.
This can be done as mini-presentations, with learners taking turns to present a word they have found, or as a class project, or in the form of regular quizzes [5, online].
Supliment alimentar pentru slabit improve students translation skills teachers make students do many kinds of exercises during the class at same time doing reading and writing exercises. Some words are confusing for students which express different meanings depending on the contexts like clean: 1.
To clean verb to remove dirt from something: I'm going to clean the windows this morning. In this case, teachers may say some easy ways to figure out words different meanings because students tend to translate literally or word for word. Teachers should say to students how to work with dictionary to look words up. It s the best way to translate sentences definitely. In order to boost students working skills with dictionary, we make our students do this kind of exercise in the class.
Eco slim avis negatif book has a glossary.
When students read texts in the class they look new words up in a glossary including word definitions. From this work, students can find out word classifications such as a noun, verb and adjective etc. For example: 1. After looking the words up, teachers ask students to translate word definitions.
If the students have some troubles, teachers help them and give more explanations of the words or phrases to correspond translations to their mother tongue exactly. This kind of exercise helps students give translation skills and develops students vocabulary spare. Many students have difficulty with word order but there are few materials which deal with this. The problem spider venele pierde în greutate often specifically related to their mother tongue.
Here should be seen an article discussing English word order and possible teaching solutions by Pauline Taylor. We agree with Pauline Taylor because word orders in the Mongolian language differ from the English language therefore Mongolian students make mistakes making sentences and translating.
Especially, when our students translate sentences from Mongolian into English, their translation is word for word and most students keep word orders of Mongolian sentences.
In the Mongolian language, verbs are placed at the end of sentences and subjects are at the beginning of sentences like English but in English, verbs are usually placed after subjects. Also places of objects in sentences are different in both languages. That s why teaching word order is crucial for Mongolian students.
You can see pierde belly fat webmd differences from the following sentences: 1. Engineers recorded the material s reflective ability. Students are complicated because if they don t know them, their translation may go wrong. To overcome some problems in translation, a grammar translation method eco slim avis negatif very useful for Mongolian students because of differences between the Mongolian language and the English language.
Different types of translation methods can be used in the English classrooms like word-for-word translation, literal translation, faithful translation, semantic translation, adaptive translation, free translation, 11 12 idiomatic translation and communicative translation.
English teachers can choose which method is appropriate in what classes depending on students language levels and purposes of given translation tasks for students.
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Engineering Career Paths. Express Publishing. A Textbook of Translation. Nach einem entsprechenden Experiment erwies sich, dass nicht ein einziger der Befragten wusste, wieviele Sprichwörter, sprichwörtliche Redensarten, Rätsel, Omensprüche und andere volkstümliche Spruchformeln, anders gesagt: wieviele Parömien er kennt.
Als wir jedoch unser Experiment mit speziell ausgearbeiteten Tests fortsetzten, stellte es sich heraus, dass von pierderea în greutate și durerea menstruală Informanten keiner weniger als tausend volkstümliche Spruchformeln kannte. In speziellen Untersuchungen dazu stellten wir fest, dass Sprichwörter, sprichwörtliche Redensarten, oder wie es in der Linguistik heisst, stereotype Wortverbindungen nicht nur gern gebrauchte Elemente der Volkspoesie sind, die fast jeder kennt, sondern gleichzeitig auch eine besondere Art sprachlicher Zeichen darstellen, ohne die eine normale Kommunukation nicht möglich ist.
Darüber hinaus erwies sich, dass viele verbreitete Parömien den Muttersprachern derartig geläufig sind, dass sie sie sogar in stark reduzierter oder modifizierter Form anwenden. Solcherart umgestaltete Sprichwörter wie auch Zeilen aus bekannten Gedichten oder Liedern halten sogar einzug in Zeitungsuberschriften, Buchtitel und Benennungen von Radio- bzw.
Wer die Grundform dieser Parömien nicht kennt, versteht natürlich auch nicht, was damit gemeint ist. Ihr Sinn lässt sich in keiner Weise aus den Bedeutungen der einzelnen Wortkomponenten ableiten und deshalb auch nicht erraten, falls man ihn nicht von vornherein kennt. Solche, unteilbare, Spruchformeln entstehen in der Regel eco slim avis negatif herausgelosten Zeilen allgemein bekannter Fabeln und Anekdoten bzw. Aus deren Titeln.
Nur wer mit dem üblichen Verwendungskontext oder dem Quellentext vertraut ist, dem diese Zitate entstammen und auf den sie den Hörer bzw. Leser zuruckverweisen, kann ihren Sinn verstehen. Gerade darum reicht die Aneignung der Grammatik und das Auswendiglernen einer bestimmten Menge von Wörtern, sogenannten idiomatischen Ausdrücken oder Phraseologismen nicht aus, wenn man die russische- wie übrigens auch jede andere- Sprache gut beherrschen will.
Um diesen Ziel zu erreichen, muss man sich unbedingt auch einen gewissen Grundbestand an Sprichwörtern, sprichwörtlichen Redensarten und anderen allgemeingebräuchlichen Parömien einpragen, die dem Muttersprachler geläufig sind und die er deshalb in den verschiedenen Variationen und Kontexten wiederkennt. Natürlich ist die Befähigung zum Identifizieren eines Sprichwortes in gekürzter und modifizierter Form nicht das einzige und bei weitem nicht das wichtigste Ziel der Beschäftigung mit volkstümlichen Spruchformeln, obwohl wir gesehen haben, dass man ohne diese Fähigkeit nicht einmal einfache Zeitungstexte richtig aufnehmen kann.